[G4-EN15], [G4-EN16],[G4-EN17], [G4-EN19] Greenhouse gas emissions by the Group consist almost exclusively of carbon dioxide and are due to the use of fossil fuels for heating, transport, electricity generation, purchase of electricity produced by third parties and staff travel (for business trips and commuting between home and work). In addition to these, dispersals of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFC and HFC) from air conditioning plants are also considered and converted into kg of CO2 equivalent.
For atmospheric emissions as well, use is made of the Global Reporting Initiative - GRI Version 4 - guidelines, which refer to the definitions of the GHG Protocol, distinguishing between direct emissions (Scope1: use of fossil fuels for transport, heating, power generation), indirect emissions (Scope2: purchase of electricity for industrial and civil use) and other indirect emissions (Scope3). Unless otherwise stated, the atmospheric emission figures given in this Report have been calculated based on the updated coefficients made available by the GHG Protocol.
The following table shows the total CO2 emissions of the Group.
|CO2 emissions from transport||kg||49,673,594||96%||4%|
|CO2 emissions from heating||kg||26,862,102||100%||0%|
|Emissions of CO2 equivalents for HCFC/ HFC(*) dispersals||kg||6,112,260||100%||0%|
|CO2 emissions from electricity generation by cogeneration||kg||59,332,797||100%||0%|
|CO2 emissions from electricity generation using diesel||kg||3,170,846||73%||27%|
|Total direct emissions of CO2 - under Scope1 GRI||kg||145,151,599||98%||2%|
|2016 v. 2015||(6)%||(6)%||(19)%|
|2016 v. 2014||3%||4%||(23)%|
|CO2 emissions from purchases of electricity generated by mixed sources||kg||770,216,498||93%||7%|
|Total indirect emissions of CO2 - under Scope2 GRI||kg||770,216,498||93%||7%|
|2016 v. 2015||826%||5688%||(23)%|
|2016 v. 2014||865%||5169%||(18)%|
|CO2 emissions from work-home commuting**||kg||64,755,152||92%||8%|
|CO2 emissions from air travel***||kg||4,999,265||56%||44%|
|CO2 emissions from train travel***||kg||618,298||100%||0%|
|Total other indirect emissions of CO2 - under Scope3 GRI||kg||70,372,715||90%||10%|
|2016 v. 2015||(10)%||(8)%||(28)%|
|2016 v. 2014||(10)%||(9)%||(21)%|
|Total CO2 emissions||kg||985,823,334||93%||7%|
|2016 v. 2015||210%||295%||(23)%|
|2016 v. 2014||229%||317%||(18)%|
(*) The equivalent CO2 emissions of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) are determined by reference to specific Global Warming Potential (GWP) parameters for the two gases: the index is based on a relative scale that compares the gas considered with an equal mass of carbon dioxide with a GWP of 1. The GWP of HCFC used was 1,780 and that of HFC was 1,300.
(**) In determining the impact of home-work commuting, reference is made to statistical data produced on the company’s personnel.
(***)Emissions due to air travel were calculated by the study and research centre of American Express (the Travel Agency used by TIM) supported by DEFRA (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs of the United Kingdom) based on the number of journeys actually made, subdivided by the duration of each individual journey (short, medium or long).
(****) The calculation of the emissions for train journeys relates to Italy, and for SpA only, and was taken from reports by LifeGate (used solely to determine Rail CO2). The emission factors refer to means of transport designed to transport passengers and derive from two main sources: 1. Yearly Report on environmental emissions associated with transport calculated annually by the National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale - ISPRA); 2. Ecoinvent Database version 2.2; the emission factors were calculated using the characterization factors issued by the International Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007.
The emissions produced by purchasing electricity from mixed sources (Scope 2) increased significantly in 2016 compared to the two previous years. As already mentioned, this is a result of the decision not to invest in Italy, in acquiring guarantees of origin, which certify the electricity produced by renewable sources, unlike in the previous two years, but rather in energy efficiency measures which concerned the network infrastructure and company offices.